Cytokines: Powerful Communication Molecules

Posted On March 2, 2021 at 1:25 pm by / No Comments

Cytokines: Powerful Communication Molecules

Cytokines are powerful communication molecules capable of regulating a wide spectrum of biological functions, including a crucial role in the immuno-pathogenesis of disease. Two general constellations of cytokines are associated with functional immune responses. These are classified as either TH1 or TH2 and can be distinctly observed during disease.

Cytokine

Disease*

TH1

IL-2

Interleukin-2

Inflammation

IL-12

Interleukin-12

Autoimmune diseases (RA, MS, IDDM), tumor, Graft vs. Host Disease, Infections, HIV, Glomerulonephritis

IFN-γ

Interferon-γ

Inflammatory diseases (infection, Dermatitis), autoimmune diseases (RA, MS, IDDM, SLE), tumors, Hepatitis B and C

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

Inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases (RA, IDDM, MS, CD), Psoriasis, chronic Hepatitis B and C, SLE, tumors, chronic lymphatic Leukemia, Schizophrenia

TH2

IL-4

Interleukin-4

Asthma, Allergy, Malaria, Hepatitis C

IL-5

Interleukin-5

Asthma, Allergy

IL-6

Interleukin-6

Inflammatory diseases (viral and bacterial infection), autoimmune disease (RA, SLE, etc.), Schizophrenia

IL-10

Interleukin-10

Autoimmune disease, IgE-mediated Asthma, Hepatitis B and C, IBD, Septic shock, mostly during recession of diseases

IL-13

Interleukin-13

Asthma, Allergy, COPD

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating Factor

Inflammation (bacterial infection, Asthma), autoimmune diseases, toxic shock

TH17

IL-17

Interleukin-17

Inflammatory diseases (inflammatory airway diseases), autoimmune diseases (RA, MS, Crohn’s Disease, etc)

Other

IL-1β

Interleukin-β

Inflammatory diseases (Periodontitis, Colitis, IBD), autoimmune diseases (RA, IDDM, MG), Schizophrenia

IL-7

Interleukin-7

Osteolytic Cancer, Lymphopenia, high in untreated advanced HIV patients and in those who fail to respond to HAART therapy

IL-8

Interleukin-8

Autoimmune diseases (RA, Crohn’s disease), Uveitis, Colitis, acute inflammatory diseases

G-CSF

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor

Autoimmune disease, IgE-mediated Asthma, Hepatitis B and C, IBD, Septic shock, mostly during recession of diseases

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

Inflammatory diseases (Glomerulonephritis, Allergy), Atherosclerosis, Neoplasm, human immunodeficiency infection, autoimmune diseases (RA, MS), Alzheimer’s disease

MIP-1β

Macrophage inflammatory protein-β

Acute infections such as bacterial Sepsis, Plasmodium, HIV, lung disease- Sarcoidosis, autoimmune diseases (RA, MS), Colitis, Asthma

TGF-1β

Transforming growth factors-β

Inflammation, wound healing, bone formation, fibrotic conditions, carcinogenesis, immunosuppressive disorders, neurodegenerative disease, coronary artery disease, SLE, RA

*This chart is not to be used for diagnostic purposes. This is only for general information on the role cytokines might play in human disease.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines

IL-1β , IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, IFN- γ, TNF-α

Anti-inflammatory cytokines

IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, TGF-β

Chemokines

IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1β

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Reference:

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