Factors Affecting Osteoporosis

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Factors Affecting Osteoporosis

FACTOR

INFLUENCE

Calcium

Increase dietary sources of calcium (cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, sardines, salmon, whole grains and dairy)
Decrease foods that contain phosphorus, which displaces calcium (animal protein, cola soft drinks)
Minimise foods that increase calcium excretion (caffeine, alcohol, salt)(3)

Magnesium

Involved in calcium metabolism, synthesis of Vitamin D and formation of bone
Magnesium deficiency impairs the release and action of Parathyroid Hormone(4,5)

Vitamin D

A primary regulator of calcium absorption
Sources include fish, eggs, dairy foods and adequate sunlight(6)

Vitamin K

Necessary for the production of osteocalcin, a protein that attracts calcium to crystallisation sites
Inhibits apoptosis of osteoblasts
Found in cruciferous vegetables(7)

Oestrogen

Promotes apoptosis of osteoclasts
Shown to decrease bone resorption
After menopause, oestrogen levels drop and periodic NTx testing and Baseline Hormone Profiles are effective ways to ensure that the post-menopausal decrease in oestrogen is not increasing the risk of osteoporosis(8)

Progesterone

Evidence suggests that progesterone may stimulate osteoblastic activity(1)

Testosterone

Builds bone density

Exercise

Weight-bearing exercise stimulates bone remodelling(9)

Boron

Influences metabolism of calcium, magnesium and Vitamin D

Manganese

Vital for bone matrix support

Lead

Displaces calcium from bones and interferes with magnesium and zinc

Aluminium

Interferes with osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity resulting in accelerated bone loss
Increases urinary excretion of calcium

Cadmium

Increases urinary excretion of calcium

dr-golding-350

Dr Golding’s medical practice offers the following in relation to osteoporosis:

  1. Cuba bone density testing (sonographic bone ankle bone density testing with T-scores equivalent to formal bone densitometry testing at a fraction of the price and fully medical aid reimbursable).
  2. Beta-crosslaps testing for bone resorption marker testing
  3. Mineral replenishment with YWB multiminerals
  4. Metal detoxification
  5. Mineral and metal testing with oligoscan
  6. Bio-identical hormone replenishment
  7. Vit d and k2 replenishment and vit d level testing

 

Book Your Appointment Today
011 718 3004 / 011 483 1080

Visit Dr Golding’s Online Store

Urinary Telopeptide (NTx)

The urinary telopeptide (NTx) is a quantitative measure of the excretion of cross-linked N-telopeptides, specifically type 1 bone collagen and provides an indicator of the rate of human bone resorption (breakdown).(1)

What are Telopeptides?

Telopeptides are a breakdown product of bone resorption. When osteoclasts ‘dig’ into the pits in bone, products of bone matrix are released into circulation. The primary product is generally type 1 bone collagen along with some minerals. One type of collagen, specific to bone, is cross-linked telopeptide. An increase in telopeptide relates to an elevated bone resorption.(2)  The NTx test can also be used to monitor the efficacy of antiresorptive therapy in postmenopausal women and women with osteoporosis.(6)

Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Reference Ranges

The reference ranges for normal pre-menopausal women and for men are below. The relative risk of loss of bone mineral density is also included for menopausal and post-menopausal women.

FEMALES

Units

Adolescent Girls 10-12 years

110 ñ 2450

Pre-menopausal Women Mean Age 39 years

5 ñ 65

Relative Risk*

Early and Post-Menopausal Woman (6 months to 3 years post-menopausal)

18 ñ 38

38 ñ 51

51 ñ 67

67 ñ 188

1.4

2.5

3.8

17.3

*Relative risk for bone loss at the spine BMD for untreated patient(s)

MALES

Units

Age 24-40 years

14 ñ 87

Age 45-65 years

14 ñ 59

Key:

Unit = 1 nmol/l BCE/nmol Creatinine BCE = Bone Collagen Equivalent

References:

  1. Parvianen, et al. Urinary bone resorption markers in monitoring treatment of symptomatic osteoporosis. Clin Chem Acta, 1999; 279(1-2): 145-154 .
  2. Chaki, et al. The predictive value of biochemical markers of bone turnover for bone mineral density in postmenopausal Japanese women. J Bone Miner Res, 2000; 15(8): 1537-1544.
  3. Lavelle, J. Osteoporosis: natural care support and prevention. Drug Store News, Dec 14, 1998.
  4. Steidel, L. Dittmar R et al. Biochemical findings in osteoporosis. The significance of magnesium, Cas Lek Cesk, 1990; 12 (2): 51-55,.
  5. Bonn, D. Parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis, Lancet, 1996; 6.
  6. Glerup, H. et al. Commonly recommended daily intake of Vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med, 2000; 247 (2):260-268.
  7. Urayama, S. et al. Effect of Vitamin K2 on osteoblast apoptosis: Vitamin K2 inhibits apoptotic cell death of human osteoblasts induced by Faz, proteasome inhibitor, etopside and staurosporine. J Lab Clin Med, 2000; 136 (3): 181-193.
  8. McCarthy, M. Bones protected by promotion of osteoclasts apoptosis. Lancet, 1996; 12.
  9. Creighton DL, et al. Weight-bearing exercise and markers of bone turnover n female athletes, J Appl Physiol, 2001; 90 (2): 565-570.
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