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A. Mast cells appear to degranulate in response to oxidative stress.
“Mast cells play an important role in asthma, and oxidant exposure has been reported to cause direct mast cell degranulation as well as augment immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated responses in vivo.”
Source: “Hydrogen peroxide effects on rat mast cell function”, 1994. (pdf)
B. At the same time, Mast Cells can also trigger ROS production.
“stimulation of mast cells through the high-affinity IgE receptor induces the production of ROS such as superoxide and H2O2 possibly by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase homologue and that these endogenously produced oxidants have important functions in regulation of various mast cell responses, including degranulation, leukotriene secretion, and cytokine production.”
Source: Role of Oxidants in Mast Cell Activation, 2005.(pdf)
Calcium signaling is important in mast cells. There are many triggers.
Clark Jeffrey mentioned copper affect in calcium. Many that I know of mast cell community have copper issues as well as more metabolic issues. Speaking from someone with MCAS. And, yes, B2/B12 is deficient. Very hard to get out of this cycle… there’s a link to biopterin pathway, lack of BH4. (pdf)
Mobilization of Ca2+ in response to IgE receptor-mediated signaling is a key process in many aspects of mast cell function. Here we summarize our current understanding of the molecular bases for this process and the roles that it plays in physiologically relevant mast cell biology. Activation of IgE receptor signaling by antigen that crosslinks these complexes initiates Ca2+ mobilization as a fast wave that is frequently followed by a series of Ca2+ oscillations which are dependent on Ca2+ influx-mediated by coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum luminal Ca2+ sensor STIM1 to the calcium release activated calcium channel protein Orai1. Granule exocytosis depends on this process, together with the activation of protein kinase C isoforms, and specific roles for these signaling steps are beginning to be understood. Ca2+ mobilization also plays important roles in stimulated exocytosis of recycling endosomes and newly synthesized cytokines, as well as in antigen-mediated chemotaxis of rat mucosal mast cells. Phosphoinositide metabolism plays key roles in all of these processes, and we highlight these roles in several cases.
Add in DAO enzymes (Diamine oxidase) while rebuilding nutrients. DAO is involved in the metabolism, oxidation and inactivation of histamine and other polyamines such as putrescine or spermidine.