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Bromelain is an enzyme mixture present in the pineapple. People tend to use bromelain as a supplement for various health benefits, including relieving sinus problems, reducing inflammation, and improving digestion.
There is varied scientific evidence surrounding the effectiveness of using bromelain for these purposes.
This article will look at the reported benefits, as well as the potential risks, of using bromelain.
Bromelain is an enzyme mixture that people can extract from the stem or fruit of the pineapple plant Ananas comosus.
Healers have used these enzymes for hundreds of years in many ways. Now, retailers tend to sell bromelain either as a health supplement or skin cream.
Bromelain is a mixture of enzymes that have active effects in the body. The active ingredients in bromelain include proteinases and proteases, which are enzymes that break down proteins in the body.
People use bromelain as a natural remedy for many health issues. There is little quality scientific research to support many of its use, however.
We discuss the possible benefits of bromelain supplements, along with the research, below:
Bromelain may be helpful as a supportive therapy to reduce the symptoms of sinusitis and related conditions that affect breathing and the nasal passages.
A 2016 review of studies suggests that bromelain may reduce the duration of sinusitis symptoms in children, improve breathing, and reduce nasal inflammation.
A 2006 systematic review reports that bromelain, when a person uses it alongside standard medications, can help relieve inflammation in the sinuses. This study provides high-quality evidence, as it looked at 10 randomized control trials.
People commonly use bromelain supplements to improve the symptoms of osteoarthritis.
A 2004 review of clinical studies found that bromelain is a useful treatment for osteoarthritis, possibly due to its anti-inflammatory effects. The researchers say that further research is needed into the effectiveness and suitable dosages.
However, this is an older study, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) say that the research to date is mixed about whether bromelain, alone or with other medications, is effective in treating osteoarthritis.
Research suggests that bromelain may be beneficial for people with rheumatoid arthritis.
Along with reducing nasal inflammation in sinusitis, bromelain may also reduce inflammation elsewhere in the body.
According to a 2016 review of studies, research in cell and animal models has suggested that bromelain can reduce certain compounds associated with cancer inflammation and tumor growth.
Bromelain also may help stimulate a healthy immune system to release inflammation-fighting immune system compounds.
The review also suggests that bromelain can reduce transforming growth factor beta, which is a compound associated with inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and osteomyelofibrosis.
However, scientists had conducted many of these studies on mice or in a cell-based laboratory setting, so researchers do not currently know the effects that bromelain has in humans.
Bromelain may have anticancer effects both on cancer cells and by improving inflammation in the body and boosting the immune system, according to a 2010 review in the journal Cancer Letters.
However, the NIH say that there is currently not enough evidence to suggest that bromelain has any effects on cancer.
Some people take bromelain to relieve stomach upset and the symptoms of digestive disorders. Due to its inflammation-reducing properties, some people use it as an adjunct therapy to treat inflammatory bowel disorders.
The NIH state that there is not enough evidence for using bromelain to aid digestion.
Animal studies have suggested that bromelain can reduce the effects of some bacteria that affect the intestine, such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholera. These are both common causes of diarrhea.
Some supplement manufacturers are marketing bromelain as a weight loss aid. They state that the enzymes in bromelain can increase the speed at which the body digests fats.
However, there is little research to suggest that bromelain could help a person lose weight.
Bromelain is naturally present in a pineapple’s stem and yellow fruit. Manufacturers may sell bromelain as a capsule, cream, powder, or tablet. Manufacturers may also package bromelain along with other supplements, such as conjugated linoleic acid, which is a compound that may help with weight loss.